RoboCup-2002

Middle-Size Robot League

FIFA Laws and RoboCup Modifications


Note: Numberings below level of laws were added for easier reference.


LAW 1 - The Field of Play

1-1 Dimensions

The field of play must be rectangular.
The length of the touch line must be greater than the length of the goal line.

Length: minimum 90 m (100 yds), maximum 120 m (130 yds)
Width: minimum 45 m (50 yds), maximum 90 m (100 yds)

International Matches

Length: minimum 100 m (110 yds), maximum 110 m (120 yds)
Width: minimum 64 m (70 yds), maximum 75 m (80 yds)

1-2 Field Markings

The field of play is marked with lines. These lines belong to the areas of which they are boundaries.

The two longer boundary lines are called touch lines. The two shorter lines are called goal lines.

All lines are not more than 12 cm (5 ins) wide.

The field of play is divided into two halves by a halfway line.

The centre mark is indicated at the midpoint of the halfway line. A circle with a radius of 9.15 m (10 yds) is marked around it.

1-3 The Goal Area

A goal area is defined at each end of the field as follows:

Two lines are drawn at right angles to the goal line, 5.5 m (6 yds) from the inside of each goalpost. These lines extend into the field of play for a distance of 5.5 m (6 yds) and are joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. The area bounded by these lines and the goal line is the goal area.

1-4 The Penalty Area

A penalty area is defined at each end of the field as follows:

Two lines are drawn at right angles to the goal line, 16.5 m (18 yds) from the inside of each goalpost. These lines extend into the field of play for a distance of 16.5 m (18 yds) and are joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. The area bounded by these lines and the goal line is the penalty area.

Within each penalty area a penalty mark is made 11 m (12 yds) from the midpoint between the goalposts and equidistant to them. An arc of a circle with a radius of 9.15 m (10 yds) from each penalty mark is drawn outside the penalty area.

1-5 Flagposts

A flagpost, not less than 1.5 m (5 ft) high, with a non-pointed top and a flag is placed at each corner.

Flagposts may also be placed at each end of the halfway line, not less than 1 m (1 yd) outside the touch line.

1-6 The Corner Arc

A quarter circle with a radius of 1 m (1 yd) from each corner flagpost is drawn inside the field of play.

1-7 Goals

Goals must be placed on the centre of each goal line.

They consist of two upright posts equidistant from the corner flagposts and joined at the top by a horizontal crossbar.

The distance between the posts is 7.32 m (8 yds) and the distance from the lower edge of the crossbar to the ground is 2.44 m (8 ft).

Both goalposts and the crossbar have the same width and depth which do not exceed 12 cm (5 ins). The goal lines are the same width as that of the goalposts and the crossbar. Nets may be attached to the goals and the ground behind the goal, provided that they are properly supported and do not interfere with the goalkeeper.

The goalposts and crossbars must be white.

1-8 Safety

Goals must be anchored securely to the ground. Portable goals may only be used if they satisfy this requirement.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

The Field:

RC-1-1:
Dimensions

Length: minimum 8 m, maximum 10 m
The width of the field must be at least half of its length.

RC-1-2:
Field Markings

For RoboCup, the radius of the centre circle is 1 m.

Extra markings for fields used in RoboCup are defined in clause RC-1-2-2.

Clause RC-1-2-3 imposes restrictions on the surface used in RoboCup fields.

Clause RC-1-2-4 imposes restrictions on the lighting present on RoboCup fields.

RC-1-2-1:
Walls

There should be NO wall around the playing area of the field. The border white line should be 12.5 cm thick. Outside the border line the robots should be able to move around. To sort out the safety problems, there is some device, such as a net, poles, or a thick pipe all around the field (1 meter away from the border line). This device is all around the field and would prevent the robots from going outside.

RC-1-2-2:
Extra Markings

The field used in RoboCup has 7 markings used for game restart. In addition to the centre marking, 6 extra spots on the field, marked with a black colour, will be used for that purpose. The penalty marks are not used for game restarts, unless a penalty was called by the referee. The positions of the six extra markers are specified in the field drawing above.

RC-1-2-3:
Surface

The color of the field surface must be green.

Choosing a material for the floor is the responsibility of the local organizers of an event. It is recommended that organizers distribute samples of the floor prior to an event.

RC-1-2-4:
Lighting

Light sources will be hung over the field. The brightness of the field will be adjusted between 500 and 1500 lux.

RC-1-3:
The Goal Area:

A goal area is defined at each end of the field as follows:

Two lines are drawn at right angles to the goal line, 0.5 m from the inside of each goalpost. These lines extend into the field of play for a distance of 1 m and are joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. The area bounded by these lines and the goal line is the goal area.

RC-1-4:
The Penalty Area:

The penalty area in RoboCup is the same as the goal area. Whenever FIFA rules refer to the penalty area, the RoboCup goal area is to substituted instead.

For each penalty area a penalty mark is made 2 m from the midpoint between the goalposts and equidistant to them.

RC-1-5:
Flagposts:

Instead of flagposts, a cylinder with a diameter of 20 cm, 90 cm heigh, is placed on the corners of the field. The center of the cylinder is at the corner point. The cylinder should be painted in the same colour as the goal at its side of the field with the exception of 1/3 of the area at the center of the cylinder which has the colour of the opposite goal. A white quarter circle with a radius of 50cm from each corner post center is pasted inside the field of play.

RC 1-6:
The Goals:

For RoboCup, the distance between the goalposts is 2 m, and the distance between the lower edge of the crossbar and the ground is 0.9 m. The depth of the goal is at least 0.4 m.

A wall may be placed around and behind the goal. Tournament regulations will define texture and color of the walls behind the goals.


Decisions of the International F.A. Board

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC Decision 3:

FIFA decision 3 applies to RoboCup with the exception that markings, logo, and advertisement may be allowed above the height of 50 cm and above the goals.

RC Decision 4:

FIFA decision 4 applies to RoboCup with the exception specified in RC Decision 3.

RC Decision 5:

FIFA decision 5 does currently not apply to RoboCup.


LAW 2 - The Ball

2-1 Qualities and Measurements

The ball is:

  • spherical
  • made of leather or other suitable material
  • of a circumference of not more than 70 cm (28 ins) and not less than 68 cm (27 ins)
  • not more than 450 g (16 oz) in weight and not less than 410 g (14 oz) at the start of the match
  • of a pressure equal to 0.6 - 1.1 atmosphere (600 - 1100 g/cm2) at sea level (8.5 lbs/sq in 15.6 lbs/sq in)

2-2 Replacement of a Defective Ball

If the ball bursts or becomes defective during the course of a match:

  • the match is stopped
  • the match is restarted by dropping the replacement ball at the place where the first ball became defective *(see Law 8)

If the ball bursts or becomes defective whilst not in play at a kick-off, goal kick, corner kick, free kick, penalty kick or throw-in:

  • the match is restarted accordingly

The ball may not be changed during the match without the authority of the referee.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-2-1:
Qualities and Measures

The ball for middle size league is a FIFA standard size 5 football. The color is orange.


Decisions of the International F.A. Board

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC Decision 2:

The organizing committee of a tournament is responsible for approving the balls to be used, including any kind advertisement, logo, or emblem on the ball.


LAW 3 - The Number of Players

3-1 Players

A match is played by two teams, each consisting of not more than eleven players, one of whom is the goalkeeper. A match may not start if either team consists of fewer than seven players.

3-2 Official Competitions

Up to a maximum of three substitutes may be used in any match played in an official competition organised under the auspices of FIFA, the confederations or the national associations.

The rules of the competition must state how many substitutes may be nominated, from three up to a maximum of seven.

3-3 Other Matches

In other matches, up to five substitutes may be used, provided that:

  • the teams concerned reach agreement on a maximum number
  • the referee is informed before the match

If the referee is not informed, or if no agreement is reached before the start of the match, no more than three substitutes are allowed.

3-4 All Matches

In all matches the names of the substitutes must be given to the referee prior to the start of the match. Substitutes not so named may not take part in the match.

3-5 Substitution Procedure

To replace a player by a substitute, the following conditions must be observed:

  • 3-5-1 the referee is informed before any proposed substitution is made
  • 3-5-2 a substitute only enters the field of play after the player being replaced has left and after receiving a signal from the referee
  • 3-5-3 a substitute only enters the field of play at the halfway line and during a stoppage in the match
  • 3-5-4 a substitution is completed when a substitute enters the field of play
  • 3-5-5 from that moment, the substitute becomes a player and the player he has replaced ceases to be a player
  • 3-5-6 a player who has been replaced takes no further part in the match
  • 3-5-7 all substitutes are subject to the authority and jurisdiction of the referee, whether called upon to play or not

3-6 Changing the Goalkeeper

Any of the other players may change places with the goalkeeper, provided that:

  • the referee is informed before the change is made
  • the change is made during a stoppage in the match

3-7 Infringements/Sanctions

If a substitute enters the field of play without the referee's permission:

  • play is stopped
  • the substitute is cautioned, shown the yellow card and required to leave the field of play
  • play is restarted with a dropped ball at the place it was located when play was stopped *(see Law 8)

If a player changes places with the goalkeeper without the referee's permission before the change is made:

  • play continues
  • the players concerned are cautioned and shown the yellow card when the ball is next out of play

For any other infringements of this Law:

  • the players concerned are cautioned and shown the yellow card

3-8 Restart of Play

If play is stopped by the referee to administer a caution:

  • the match is restarted by an indirect free kick, to be taken by a player of the opposing team from the place where the ball was located when play was stopped *(see Law 8)

3-9 Players and Substitutes Sent Off

A player who has been sent off before the kick-off may be replaced only by one of the named substitutes.

A named substitute who has been sent off, either before the kick-off or after play has started, may not be replaced.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-3-1:
Players

A match is played by two teams, each consisting of not more than four players, one of whom is the goalkeeper. A match may not start if either team consists of fewer than two players.

RC-3-5:
Substitution Procedure

Conditions 3-5-2 is replaced by: A substitute only enters the field of play after the player being replaced has left

Conditions 3-5-3 is replaced by: A substitute only enters the field of play after receiving a signal from the referee or during a stoppage in the match

Conditions 3-5-5 is replaced by: From that moment, the substitute becomes a player and the player it has replaced becomes a substitute

Condition 3-5-6 does not apply to RoboCup, i.e. a player leaving the field during a substitution may come back during a later substitution.

RC-3-7:
Infringements/Sanctions

If a substitute enters the field of play without the referee's permission:

  • play is stopped
  • the substitute is cautioned, shown the yellow card and required to leave the field of play
  • play is restarted with a penalty kick for the opposing team, if the play was stopped during a situation where the substitute's entering of the field either prevented a goal scoring situation for the opponent or enabled a goal scoring situation for the team of the substitute. In the latter case, the goal scored by the substitute's team is not awarded.
  • play is restarted with a free kick for the opposing team at the place it was located when play was stopped *(see Law 8), if the play was stopped during normal play.


Decisions of the International F.A. Board

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC Decision 1:

In RoboCup matches, the minimum number of players in a team must be one. If for whatever reason either team has not a single player on the field, the match is discontinued. The organizing committee of a tournament will decide on appropriate measures.


LAW 4 - The Players' Equipment

4-1 Safety

A player must not use equipment or wear anything which is dangerous to himself or another player (including any kind of jewellery).

4-2 Basic Equipment

The basic compulsory equipment of a player is:

  • a jersey or shirt
  • shorts - if thermal undershorts are worn, they are of the same main colour as the shorts
  • stockings
  • shinguards
  • footwear

4-3 Shinguards

  • are covered entirely by the stockings
  • are made of a suitable material (rubber, plastic, or similar substances)
  • provide a reasonable degree of protection

4-4 Goalkeepers

  • each goalkeeper wears colours which distinguish him from the other players, the referee and the assistant referees

4-5 Infringements/Sanctions

For any infringement of this Law:

  • play need not be stopped
  • the player at fault is instructed by the referee to leave the field of play to correct his equipment
  • the player leaves the field of play when the ball next ceases to be in play, unless he has already corrected his equipment
  • any player required to leave the field of play to correct his equipment does not re-enter without the referee's permission
  • the referee checks that the player's equipment is correct before allowing him to re-enter the field of play
  • the player is only allowed to re-enter the field of play when the ball is out of play

A player who has been required to leave the field of play because of an infringement of this Law and who enters (or re-enters) the field of play without the referee's permission is cautioned and shown the yellow card.

4-6 Restart of Play

If play is stopped by the referee to administer a caution:

  • the match is restarted by an indirect free kick taken by a player of the opposing side, from the place where the ball was located when the referee stopped the match *(see Law 8)

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-4-1:
Safety

Additional requirements to be met by players have to be specified in the RoboCup Laws.

RC-4-2:
Basic Equipment

This clause does not apply to RoboCup. Design requirements to be met by players have to be specified in the RoboCup Laws.

RC-4-3:
Shinguards

This does not apply to RoboCup.

RC-4-4:
Goalkeepers

The goalkeeper must wear some marker for identification. The RoboCup laws or tournament regulations have to provide specifications for these markings.


LAW 5 - The Referee

5-1 The Authority of the Referee

Each match is controlled by a referee who has full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed.

5-2 Powers and Duties

The Referee:

  • enforces the Laws of the Game
  • controls the match in co-operation with the assistant referees and, where applicable, with the fourth official
  • ensures that the ball meets the requirements of Law 2
  • ensures that the players' equipment meets the requirements of Law 4
  • acts as timekeeper and keeps a record of the match
  • stops, suspends or terminates the match, at his discretion, for any infringements of the Laws
  • stops, suspends or terminates the match because of outside interference of any kind
  • stops the match if, in his opinion, a player is seriously injured and ensures that he is removed from the field of play
  • allows play to continue until the ball is out of play if a player is, in his opinion, only slightly injured
  • ensures that any player bleeding from a wound leaves the field of play. The player may only return on receiving a signal from the referee, who must be satisfied that the bleeding has stopped
  • allows play to continue when the team against which an offence has been committed will benefit from such an advantage and penalises the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue at that time
  • punishes the more serious offence when a player commits more than one offence at the same time
  • takes disciplinary action against players guilty of cautionable and sending-off offences. He is not obliged to take this action immediately but must do so when the ball next goes out of play
  • takes action against team officials who fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner and may at his discretion, expel them from the field of play and its immediate surrounds
  • acts on the advice of assistant referees regarding incidents which he has not seen
  • ensures that no unauthorised persons enter the field of play
  • restarts the match after it has been stopped
  • provides the appropriate authorities with a match report which includes information on any disciplinary action taken against players, and/or team officials and any other incidents which occurred before, during or after the match

5-3 Decisions of the Referee

The decisions of the referee regarding facts connected with play are final.

The referee may only change a decision on realising that it is incorrect or, at his discretion, on the advice of an assistant referee, provided that he has not restarted play.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-5-2:
Duties

In RoboCup, some referee duties like time keeping and keeping a record of the match may be delegated to one of the assistant referees.


Decisions of the International F.A. Board


LAW 6 - The Assistant Referees

6-1 Duties

Two assistant referees are appointed whose duties, subject to the decision of the referee, are to indicate:

  • when the whole of the ball has passed out of the field of play
  • which side is entitled to a corner kick, goal kick or throw-in
  • when a player may be penalised for being in an offside position
  • when a substitution is requested
  • when misconduct or any other incident has occurred out of the view of the referee

6-2 Assistance

The assistant referees also assist the referee to control the match in accordance with the Laws of the Game.

In the event of undue interference or improper conduct, the referee will relieve an assistant referee of his duties and make a report to the appropriate authorities.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-6-1:
Duties

In RoboCup, one or more assistants may be appointed for a match. The recommendation is to have three assistant referees. One of the assistant referees should be responsible for time keeping and keeping a game record. The referee may assign assistant referees additional duties aside of those specified in the FIFA law.


LAW 7 - The Duration of the Match

7-1 Periods of Play

The match lasts two equal periods of 45 minutes, unless otherwise mutually agreed between the referee and the two participating teams. Any agreement to alter the periods of play (for example to reduce each half to 40 minutes because of insufficient light) must be made before the start of play and must comply with competition rules.

7-2 Half-Time Interval

Players are entitled to an interval at half-time.

The half-time interval must not exceed 15 minutes.

Competition rules must state the duration of the half-time interval.

The duration of the half-time interval may be altered only with the consent of the referee.

7-3 Allowance for Time Lost

Allowance is made in either period for all time lost through:

  • substitution(s)
  • assessment of injury to players
  • removal of injured players from the field of play for treatment
  • wasting time
  • any other cause

The allowance for time lost is at the discretion of the referee.

7-4 Penalty Kick

If a penalty kick has to be taken or retaken, the duration of either half is extended until the penalty kick is completed.

7-5 Extra Time

Competition rules may provide for two further equal periods to be played. The conditions of Law 8 will apply.

7-6 Abandoned Match

An abandoned match is replayed unless the competition rules provide otherwise.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-7-1:
Periods of Play

The match lasts two equal periods of 10 minutes.

The referee may extend the period of play at his discretion by up to 1 minute, if any delays happened during regular match time.

The match must start not later than 15 minutes after scheduled match time.

The referee can adjust(enlarge/shorten) the startup and break period depending on the situation.


LAW 8 - The Start and Restart of Play

8-1 Preliminaries

A coin is tossed and the team which wins the toss decides which goal it will attack in the first half of the match.

The other team takes the kick-off to start the match.

The team which wins the toss takes the kick-off to start the second half of the match.

In the second half of the match the teams change ends and attack the opposite goals.

8-2 Kick-off

A kick-off is a way of starting or restarting play:

  • at the start of the match
  • after a goal has been scored
  • at the start of the second half of the match
  • at the start of each period of extra time, where applicable

A goal may be scored directly from the kick-off.

8-3 Procedure (for kick-off)

  • 8-3-1 all players are in their own half of the field
  • 8-3-2 the opponents of the team taking the kick-off are at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the ball until it is in play
  • 8-3-3 the ball is stationary on the centre mark
  • 8-3-4 the referee gives a signal
  • 8-3-5 the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves forward
  • 8-3-6 the kicker does not touch the ball a second time until it has touched another player

After a team scores a goal, the kick-off is taken by the other team.

8-4 Infringements/Sanctions (for kick-off)

8-4-1 If the kicker touches the ball a second time before it has touched another player:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred *(see Law 8)

8-4-2 For any other infringement of the kick-off procedure:

  • the kick-off is retaken

8-5 Dropped Ball

A dropped ball is a way of restarting the match after a temporary stoppage which becomes necessary, while the ball is in play, for any reason not mentioned elsewhere in the Laws of the Game.

8-6 Procedure (for dropped ball)

The referee drops the ball at the place where it was located when play was stopped. *(see Law 8)

Play restarts when the ball touches the ground.

8-7 Infringements/Sanctions (for dropped ball)

The ball is dropped again:

  • if it is touched by a player before it makes contact with the ground
  • if the ball leaves the field of play after it makes contact with the ground, without a player touching it

8-8 Special Circumstances

A free kick awarded to the defending team inside its own goal area is taken from any point within the goal area.

An indirect free kick awarded to the attacking team in its opponents' goal area is taken from the goal area line parallel to the goal line at the point nearest to where the infringement occurred.

A dropped ball to restart the match after play has been temporarily stopped inside the goal area takes place on the goal area line parallel to the goal line at the point nearest to where the ball was located when play was stopped.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-8-2:
Kick-off

Clause 8-2 is extended as follows: all robots of a team are started and stopped via wireless communication from outside the field. Starting and stopping robots manually should be an exception and is only allowed after getting permission from the referee.

RC-8-3:
Procedure
(for kick-off)

Clause 8-3-2 is changed as follows: The opponents of the team taking the kick-off are at least 1 m from the ball until it is in play.

Clause 8-3-4 is extended as follows: If one or both of the teams in a match have permission to use a manual startup procedure, the referee gives a sequence of two signals with an interval of 10 seconds. Robot player's without remote start capability may be started on the field after the first signal. They may not move before the second signal was given by the referee. All human team members must leave the field of play immediately after the first signal and before the second signal.

Clause 8-3-6 currently does not apply to RoboCup.

Before kickoff, all robots of a team should move to their kickoff position inside the team's half autonomously. If a robot cannot move autonomously, it can be joysticked by remote control. If a robot gets stuck while moving back, a team member can help (i.e., move or rotate it a bit) resolving its situation. If a robot cannot move back to its starting position, it has to be picked up by a team member and placed on one of the following three positions inside the team's half: penalty marker, game restart marker to the left of the penalty marker, or game restart marker to the right of the penalty marker. The robot should anyway show to be able to move somehow. Before the kick-off, all robots must be in their own half (Clause 8-3-1) and outside the center circle. As soon as the referee starts the game, robots of both teams are allowed to move in the entire field, but the defending team cannot enter the centre circle until the ball is in play. The ball is in play when it is touched and moved by the attacking team. If the ball isn't in play in 10 seconds after the start, the kick-off should be retaken, but assigned to the other team. If, before the ball is in play, a robot of the defending team enters the centre circle, a yellow card is shown to the infringing robot and the kick-off is retaken by the same team.

On kickoff, the kicking robot can only score a goal after it completely left the center circle. If the attacking robot directly or indirectly (by hitting other players) scored while it was still partially inside the center circle, the goal will not be awarded and the game is restarted with the kickoff given to the same team again.

RC-8-4:
Infringements/Sanctions
(for kick-off)

Clause 8-4-1 does currently not apply to RoboCup.

If a human team member is still on the field after the referee has given the second signal, and the opposing team was taking the kick-off, and the player taking the kick-off has already kicked the ball in the direction of the goal, a penalty kick may be awarded to the team taking the kick-off. In all other cases, the kick-off is retaken.

RC-8-6:
Procedure
(for dropped ball)

The referee places the ball on the nearest game restart point (see law 1 and RC-1-2-2). If this restart point is occupied by robots, the referee places the ball as close to the nearest restart point as possible.

RC-8-7:
Infringements/Sanctions
(for dropped ball)

This does currently not apply to RoboCup.


LAW 9 - The Ball In and Out of Play

9-1 Ball Out of Play

The ball is out of play when:

  • it has wholly crossed the goal line or touch line whether on the ground or in the air
  • play has been stopped by the referee

9-2 Ball In Play

The ball is in play at all other times, including when:

  • it rebounds from a goalpost, crossbar or corner flagpost and remains in the field of play
  • it rebounds from either the referee or an assistant referee when they are on the field of play


LAW 10 - The Method of Scoring

10-1 Goal Scored

A goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the goalposts and under the crossbar, provided that no infringement of the Laws of the Game has been committed previously by the team scoring the goal.

10-2 Winning Team

The team scoring the greater number of goals during a match is the winner. If both teams score an equal number of goals, or if no goals are scored, the match is drawn.

10-3 Competition Rules

For matches ending in a draw, competition rules may state provisions involving extra time, or other procedures approved by the International F.A. Board to determine the winner of a match.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-10-3:
Competition Rules

For matches ending in a draw, competition rules may state provisions involving extra time, or other procedures to determine the winner of a match.


LAW 11 - Offside

Click here to see text of the official FIFA law.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

Law 11:

This law does currently not apply to RoboCup.


LAW 12 - Fouls and Misconduct

Click here to see text of the official FIFA law.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

Law 12:

This law does currently not apply to RoboCup.

RoboCup laws have to specify rules for fouls and misconduct.


LAW 13 - Free Kicks

13-1 Types of Free Kicks

Free kicks are either direct or indirect.

For both direct and indirect free kicks, the ball must be stationary when the kick is taken and the kicker does not touch the ball a second time until it has touched another player.

13-2 The Direct Free Kick

  • if a direct free kick is kicked directly into the opponents' goal, a goal is awarded
  • if a direct free kick is kicked directly into the team's own goal, a corner kick is awarded to the opposing team

13-3 The Indirect Free Kick

Signal

The referee indicates an indirect free kick by raising his arm above his head. He maintains his arm in that position until the kick has been taken and the ball has touched another player or goes out of play.

Ball Enters the Goal

A goal can be scored only if the ball subsequently touches another player before it enters the goal.

  • if an indirect free kick is kicked directly into the opponents' goal, a goal kick is awarded
  • if an indirect free kick is kicked directly into the team's own goal, a corner kick is awarded to the opposing team

13-4 Position of Free Kick

Free Kick Inside the Penalty Area

Direct or indirect free kick to the defending team:

  • all opponents are at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the ball
  • all opponents remain outside the penalty area until the ball is in play
  • the ball is in play when it is kicked directly beyond the penalty area
  • a free kick awarded in the goal area is taken from any point inside that area

Indirect free kick to the attacking team:

  • all opponents are at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the ball until it is in play, unless they are on their own goal line between the goalposts
  • the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves
  • an indirect free kick awarded inside the goal area is taken from that part of the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal line, at the point nearest to where the infringement occurred

Free Kick Outside the Penalty Area

  • all opponents are at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the ball until it is in play
  • the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves
  • the free kick is taken from the place where the infringement occurred

13-5 Infringements/Sanctions

13-5-1 If, when a free kick is taken, an opponent is closer to the ball than the required distance:

  • the kick is retaken

13-5-2 If, when a free kick is taken by the defending team from inside its own penalty area, the ball is not kicked directly into play:

  • the kick is retaken

Free kick taken by a player other than the goalkeeper

13-5-3 If, after the ball is in play, the kicker touches the ball a second time (except with his hands) before it has touched another player:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred. *(see Law 8)

13-5-4 If, after the ball is in play, the kicker deliberately handles the ball before it has touched another player:

  • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred. *(see Law 8)
  • a penalty kick is awarded if the infringement occurred inside the kicker's penalty area.

Free kick taken by the goalkeeper

13-5-5 If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper touches the ball a second time (except with his hands), before it has touched another player:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred. *(see Law 8)

13-5-6 If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper deliberately handles the ball before it has touched another player:

  • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred outside the goalkeeper's penalty area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred. *(see Law 8)
  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred inside the goalkeeper's penalty area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred. *(see Law 8)

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-13-1:
Types of Free Kicks

In RoboCup, the kicker may touch the ball arbitrary many times after either a direct or indirect free kick.

RC-13-2:
Direct Free Kick

If a direct free kick is kicked directly into the team's own goal, a direct free kick from the centre of the field is awarded to the opposing team.

RC-13-3:
Indirect Free Kick

If an indirect free kick is kicked directly into the team's own goal, a direct free kick from the centre of the field is awarded to the opposing team.

RC-13-4:
Position of Free Kick

The distance of 2 m is to be observed whenever the FIFA law for free kicks specifies 9.15 m.

RC-13-5:
Infringements/Sanctions

Clauses 13-5-3 and 13-5-5 do currently not apply to RoboCup.


LAW 14 - The Penalty Kick

14-0

A penalty kick is awarded against a team which commits one of the ten offences for which a direct free kick is awarded, inside its own penalty area and while the ball is in play.

A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick.

Additional time is allowed for a penalty kick to be taken at the end of each half or at the end of periods of extra time.

14-1 Position of the Ball and the Players

The ball:

  • is placed on the penalty mark

The player taking the penalty kick:

  • is properly identified

The defending goalkeeper:

  • remains on his goal line, facing the kicker, between the goalposts until the ball has been kicked

The players other than the kicker are located:

  • inside the field of play
  • outside the penalty area
  • behind the penalty mark
  • at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the penalty mark

14-2 The Referee

  • does not signal for a penalty kick to be taken until the players have taken up position in accordance with the Law
  • decides when a penalty kick has been completed

14-3 Procedure

  • the player taking the penalty kicks the ball forward
  • he does not play the ball a second time until it has touched another player
  • the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves forward

When a penalty kick is taken during the normal course of play, or time has been extended at half-time or full time to allow a penalty kick to be taken or retaken, a goal is awarded if, before passing between the goalposts and under the crossbar:

  • the ball touches either or both of the goalposts and/or the crossbar, and/or the goalkeeper

14-4 Infringements/Sanctions

14-4-1 If the referee gives the signal for a penalty kick to be taken and, before the ball is in play, one of the following situations occurs:

14-4-1-1 The player taking the penalty kick infringes the Laws of the Game:

  • the referee allows the kick to proceed
  • if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken
  • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken

14-4-1-2 The goalkeeper infringes the Laws of the Game:

  • the referee allows the kick to proceed
  • if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded
  • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken

14-4-1-3 A team-mate of the player taking the kick enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark:

  • the referee allows the kick to proceed
  • if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken
  • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken
  • if the ball rebounds from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goal post and is touched by this player, the referee stops play and restarts the match with an indirect free kick to the defending team

14-4-1-4 A team-mate of the goalkeeper enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark:

  • the referee allows the kick to proceed
  • if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded
  • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken

14-4-1-5 A player of both the defending team and the attacking team infringe the Laws of the Game:

  • the kick is retaken

14-4-2 If, after the penalty kick has been taken:

14-4-2-1 The kicker touches the ball a second time (except with his hands) before it has touched another player:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred *(see Law 8)

14-4-2-2 The kicker deliberately handles the ball before it has touched another player:

  • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred *(see Law 8)

14-4-2-3 The ball is touched by an outside agent as it moves forward:

  • the kick is retaken

14-4-2-4 The ball rebounds into the field of play from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goalposts, and is then touched by an outside agent:

  • the referee stops play
  • play is restarted with a dropped ball at the place where it touched the outside agent *(see Law 8)

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-14-1:
Position of the Ball
and the Players

Before a penalty kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeeper have to move behind the centre line of the field, on the side opposite of the goal where the penalty kick takes place. The goalkeeper is positioned on the goal line first. Then, the player taking the penalty kick is positioned in the centre circle. The goal keeper may move before the kick is taken.

RC-14-3:
Procedure

The player taking the penalty kick may kick the ball arbitrary many times until the ball is touched by the goalkeeper for the first time. The kicker may not touch the ball again during a penalty shot once the goal keeper has touched the ball.

The goalkeeper must remain within its goal area at all times during a penalty shot.

A time limit of 60 seconds applies to a penalty shot. The time clock is started when the player taking the penalty shot starts to move. If a penalty shot is not executed within 60 seconds, it is called off by the referee after the time limit is exceeded.

RC-14-4:
Infringements/
Sanctions

Clause 14-4-1-3 is modified as follows: A team-mate of the player taking the kick moves across the centre line into the side of the field where the penalty shot takes place. The sanctions remain the same.

Clause 14-4-1-4 is modified as follows: A team-mate of the goalkeeper moves across the centre line into the side of the field where the penalty shot takes place. The sanctions remain the same.

Clause 14-4-2-1 is currently not applied in RoboCup.

Clause 14-4-2-2 is currently not applied in RoboCup.


LAW 15 - The Throw-In

Click here to see text of the official FIFA law.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-15:

A throw-in is a method of restarting play and a goal cannot be scored
directly from a throw-in. If the whole of the ball completely passes
over the touch line, either on the ground or in the air, the referee or
one of his assistants will place the ball as close as possible to the
point where it crossed the line. There will be no game stop. If this
operaton is dangerous or impossible to do, the referee will wait until it become possible and events (fouls, goals scored, etc.) occurring in the meanwhile will not be considered.


LAW 16 - The Goal Kick

Click here to see text of the official FIFA law.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

RC-16:

If the whole of the ball completely passes over the goal line, either on
the ground or in the air, and a goal is not scored, the referee or one
of his assistants will place the ball at the touch line at the point where the corner quarter circle intersects the touch line. There will be no game stop. If this operaton is dangerous or impossible to do, the
referee will wait until it become possible and events (fouls, goals scored, etc.) occurring in the meanwhile will not be considered.


LAW 17 - The Corner Kick

Click here to see text of the official FIFA law.

RoboCup Changes and Comments

Law 17:

This law does currently not apply to RoboCup.


URL: ./FIFA-laws02.html
Refer to: Andrea Bonarini