RoboCup-2002

Middle-Size Robot League

RoboCup Laws



RoboCup LAW 1 - The Design of Robots

1-0 Preliminaries: Design Guidelines

Robots for playing soccer should be designed such that they are both robust and safe.

1-1 Size of Robot Players

The size of each robot player must obey the following two constraints (see Figure 1-1-2 and its accompanying explanation):
  1. The robot must possess a configuration of its actuators, where the projection of the robot's shape onto the floor fits into a square of size 50cm x 50cm.
  2. Every robot may not have configurations of its actuators, where the projection of the robot's shape onto the floor does not fit into a square of size 60cm x 60cm.

    The robot should be in the configuration that fits within the 50cm x 50cm square for the majority of play time, and only occasionally (for instance, when kicking) exceed this limit (up to the 60cm x 60cm limit).

  3. The robot height must be at least 30cm and at most 80cm.

1-2 Weight of Robot Players

The maximum weight of a robot is 80 kg.

1-3 Shape of Robot Players

Any shape is allowed as long as the following two constraints are met:

  1. The size restrictions in Clause 1-1-2 are not violated.
  2. The robot passes the following checking procedure:
    Put an elastic strip (or string) around the robot body. Take a piece of paper obtained by cutting a paper circle, of the same diameter as the ball, perpendicularly to a diameter, at 1/3 of the distance from the border (e.g., for a 25 cm ball, cut at 8.3 cm). If there is a way of inserting the piece of paper, kept parallel to the ground, between the elastic strip and the robot body, with the circular part in contact with the robot body, then the robot shape is not admitted.

If a robot can change its shape, the size AND shape constraints should never be violated.

Figure 1-3-1-1:
Figure 1-3-1-2:
Figure 1-3-1-3:
Figure 1-3-1-4:
Figure 1-3-1-5:

This figure illustrates a robot with a somewhat ambiguous shape.


RoboCup LAW 2 - Game Process

2-1 Manual Interaction of Team Members

Manual interaction with the robots, either directly or via some communications mechanism, is not permitted except during kick-off, restart, and finish of the game or when ordered by the referee. The referee may order robot attendants to enter the field and slightly separate entangled robots. Dead robots, as judged by the referee, must be removed from the field.

If a robot is disfunctional for some reason, the team leader may request permission to remove the robot from the field. It is not permitted to repair, modify, readjust, or reboot robots on the field. Before match start, each team leader must specify a single team member as robot attendant. Only the robot atttendant may enter the field and remove a robot, and only after explicit permission by the referee. The robot attendant must wear appropriate clothing, preferrably black and white, and behave on the field such as to minimize interference with other robots.

After repair of a robot outside of the field, the team leader may request permission from the referee to reenter the robot onto the field. The referee gives permission to reenter the robot only if at least 30 seconds passed since removing the robot from the field, and only if the situation on the field is such that no immediate interference will occur. All robots except for goalies must reenter the field on or close to the middle line. Goalie may be reentered either at the middle line or to the left or the right of their own goal. In all cases, robots may reenter the field only after explicit permission was given by the referee.

2-2 Infringements/Sanctions

If a team violates the above clause 2-1, the referee will interrupt the game at the next point of time at his discretion, caution the team leader (show the yellow card), and award a penalty kick to the opposing team.

Any goal scored by a team while this team was violating clause 2-1 will not be awarded.

Upon repeated violation of clause 2-1 by a team, the referee may abandon the match. The organizing committee of a tournament will make further decisions, which may include awarding a win to the opposing team, and excluding the team committing the infringement from further participation in the tournament.

2-3 Game stuck

In the event of no substantial change in the game state for at least 10 seconds (e.g. ball stuck in the corner), the referee(s) shall place the ball at the nearest ball positioning point on the field.


RoboCup LAW 3 - Robot Fouls and Misconduct

The following actions by robot players are forbidden.

3-1 Damage to the Field, the Ball, or Other Robots

No robot may threaten spectators and/or damage the field and/or other robots.

A robot causing damage will be removed from the field for the remainder of the game.

A robot that caused damage may be excluded from further participation in the tournament by the organizing committee.

3-2 Ball Holding

Holding a ball means taking full control of the ball by removing all its translational degrees of freedom; typically, by fixing a ball to the body or surrounding a ball using the body to prevent accesses by others. Other robots must be able to easily take possession of the ball when a robot controls the ball.

Stopping the ball means holding the ball for less than one second.

Stopping the ball is allowed. Holding the ball for more than one second is not allowed for any robot.

Refer also to "Clause 1-6 Ball handling mechanisms".

Robots that are designed such that ball holding is certain or very likely to take place will not be permitted to play. If a robot accidentally gets into a situation where it holds the ball during play, a foul will be called, the player will be cautioned (shown the yellow card), and a free kick will be awarded to the opponent. When holding the ball repeatedly, a player will be shown the red card and removed from the field for the rest of the game.

3-3 Prohibited Behavior

If all robots stay on a line just in front of their goal, the opponent will never be able to mark a goal. Similarly, several robot can make a defensive line by staying on a line. Such action is not allowed. The referee shall interrupt the game, award the ball to the opponent, and restart the game from the center mark.

Dynamic changes of the mechanical structure of any robot during a game, in such a way that any rules (particularly 1-3-1. or 1-3-2.) are violated, will cause:

For each team, one robot only, which must be designated as goalkeeper, is permitted permanently in the team's own penalty area.

For each team, if a second robot enters the team's own penalty area and does not leave the penalty area after at most 5 seconds, the referee shall order to remove that robot. The referee may extend the time period at his discretion if the robot is actively making progress to leave the penalty area or if it is prevented from leaving the penalty area by an opponent.

For each team, one robot only may enter the opponent's goal area for no more than 10 seconds if and only if the ball is also in the goal area. If the robot is not taking actions suitable to pursue the ball and if the robot is preventing a player of the opponent to pursue the ball or if the robot does not leave the opponent's goal area within the defined time period, the referee shall order to remove that robot. The referee may extend the time period at his discretion if the robot is actively making progress to pursue the ball or if it is prevented from leaving the penalty area by an opponent.

For each team, if a second robot enters the opponent's penalty area and does not leave the penalty area after at most 5 seconds, the referee shall order to remove that robot. The referee may extend the time period at his discretion if the robot is actively making progress to leave the penalty area or if it is prevented from leaving the penalty area by an opponent.

3-4 Charging (Attacking Other Robots)

At all times, the behavior of robots must be such that damage to other robots is avoided.

All robots should feature equipment to detect situations of contact with other robots (direct charging situations). The obligation to detect charging situations includes indirect contact with another robot through the ball.

Whenever a robot moves into certain direction, it should stop movement immediately when encountering a charging situation with another robot and choose a new direction for movement. A robot must move into another direction immediately after detecting a charging situation, if the opposing robot is severely limited in its maneuverability by the charging robot (e.g. near a wall or corner).

If a robot commits charging to another robot, a foul will be called, the robot will be cautioned (shown the yellow card), and a free kick will be awarded to the opponent. If the charging treatened to cause or actually caused severe damage to the opposing player, or if the player repeatedly commits charging fouls, it will be removed from the field for the remainder of the game. In addition, the tournament committee will decide whether the player is permitted to further play in the tournament; the team must demonstrate that it took appropriate action to avoid charging fouls of their robot for further games.

3-4-1 Clarification: Charging between a moving and a standing robot:

The moving robot causes the charging situation and is responsible for resolving it.

Note: Consider the following situation: Robot A is standing near to the wall or a corner, robot B is charging into it, then stops and stands. Robot B is still considered charging, even if robot A is bumping into the standing robot B in an attempt to get of the charging situation.

3-4-2 Clarification: Charging between two moving robots:

Both are responsible for resolving the charging situation. If one robot (robot A) continues charging by moving in its initial direction, while the other robot (B) is recognizably reacting and trying to take another direction, a foul will be called on charging robot A.

3-5 Jamming

During the match any robot shall never jam communication and sensor system of opponents. The usage of equipments which may cause interference of communication or sensors should be negotiated between two teams before the match. If a team uses communications and sensors other than those previously declared to the tournament committee and/or the opponent, the game may be forfeited; the tournament committee will take this decision.

3-6 Yellow, Blue, and Red Cards

The assistant referees will maintain a count of yellow cards given to each player.

A second yellow card is considered a blue card. The player must leave the field until the next game interrupt.

A fourth yellow card is considered a red card. The player must leave the field for the remainder of the game.


URL: ./RoboCup-laws02.html
Refer to: Andrea Bonarini